Surface grinding is widely used to make smooth, flat surfaces with accurate thickness tolerance. To do so, a spinning OD grinding wheel is used. This may be plated with abrasive particles such as diamond or may be a composite wheel with embedded abrasives. Lubrication is usually added to the grinding surface in order to decrease the friction and increase the ease of the grinding. We have developed many specialized techniques for grinding hard materials into desired shapes. By using combinations of form wheels and profile grinding, we can efficiently generate complex contours in ceramics, carbides, and optical materials to tight tolerances.